History of CBD

history of cbd

Cannabinoids were first discovered in 1940 by British chemist, Robert S Cahn. Several years later, Roger Adams isolated the individual cannabinoids, including CBD. At the time, researchers had little understanding of the cannabinoid structure itself or which cannabinoid was causing which effect. That all changed in 1963, when Israeli organic chemist, Raphael Mechoulam pinpointed the stereochemistry of CBD. A short time later, Dr. Mechoulam also uncovered the chemistry behind THC. His discovery created a clear line of separation between the two compounds and established CBD as a compound which lacks the mind-altering effects associated with THC. Throughout the 1980’s, Mechoulam would conduct several studies on the use of CBD for treatment of epilepsy. Although Mechoulam claimed the test looked promising, there was no concrete publication substantiating the actual results.

By the 1990’s, further interest in the healing properties associated with cannabinoids led to the discovery of the body’s Endocannabinoid system. In 1998, GW Pharmaceuticals initiated official medical trials to better grasp the potential uses of CBD. Such efforts prompted other global studies performed by medical groups and set the path for clinical efforts on CBD moving forward. In the mid-2000s, America was introduced to a young girl, Charlotte Figi. She was born with an extremely rare form of chronic epilepsy known as Dravet Syndrome. By age four, she had lost a majority of her mobility and was experiencing 300 seizures a week. After exhausting every form of modern medicine, her parents turned to CBD oil as a remedy. Miraculously, Charlotte’s seizures decreased by 99% and most of her normal bodily functions were restored.  The media attention surrounding her story thrust CBD into the public consciousness, while people took note of its medicinal benefits. In 2014, another milestone occurred with the legalization of medical CBD in Alabama, Florida, Iowa, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah & Wisconsin. This was the first time CBD was legally accepted in a state where medical marijuana was illegal.

Most recently, the 2018 United States Farm Bill legalized hemp (defined as cannabis with less than 0.3% THC) on a federal level. This also paved the way for legal cultivation, possession, sale and distribution of the hemp plant. These efforts all helped prompt the rise of CBD. In June of 2018, another milestone in the CBD space occurred with the FDA’s approval of the drug Epidiolex. The drug, it’s active ingredient being CBD, is used in the treatment of seizures and two distinct pediatric diseases. It’s worth noting that approval of Epidiolex was based on sufficient and properly-controlled clinical studies, implying confidence in the drug’s safety and effectiveness for its specified use. Today, the usage and science behind CBD continue to grow as people are continuously experiencing the healing benefits. The future looks bright and we cannot wait to be a part of it!

References
The History of CBD: Where Does It Come from (2019) https://www.cbdcentral.com/the-history-of-cbd/
CBD and Epilepsy: Charlotte’s Web https://www.zamnesia.com/content/337-cbd-and-epilepsy-charlotte-s-story
Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill (2019) https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019

How Does CBD Work?

how does cbd work

As students, we were taught about the anatomy of the human body and the major organ systems inside all of us. They consist of skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, urinary, respiratory, reproductive, nervous, endocrine, lymphatic, and integumentary systems. Did you know we also have another system inside that also allows us to maintain optimal health? This system is called the Endocannabinoid system,  a network of receptors found in the central & peripheral nervous systems, brain, immune cells, fat, and muscle that interact with receptors found in cannabinoids. The Endocannabinoid System is made up of three parts: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.  This system was first discovered in the 1990’s by scientists who were seeking to identify how THC affected the body. Through their research, they uncovered this intricate system of receptors displayed in the nervous system. They also identified the structure of the CB1 and CB2 receptors.  

Scientists have concluded that the Endocannabinoid System plays an essential role in our body’s biological functions. The ECS promotes homeostasis, which affects sleep, inflammation, pain, and other bodily functions and allows the body to operate at an optimal level.  The term “homeostasis” gets thrown around quite a bit, so it is necessary to explain the concept in more detail from a biological perspective. Homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to maintain a balanced internal environment, notwithstanding changes that occur outside of the body. The regulation of one’s body temperature through sweat or the thirsty feeling one gets after eating salty foods are examples of homeostasis. Both instances show your body’s desire to keep a stable condition. In addition, main organs such as skin, lungs, muscles, kidneys, etc…. are involved in homeostasis. With that being said, let’s dive into how endocannabinoids and cannabinoids, such as CBD, come into play.

Endocannabinoids are molecules produced within the body. They keep all internal functions running smoothly and allow for homeostasis, which is clearly essential for health and survival, as mentioned above. Endocannabinoids bind to the (CB1 and CB2) receptors throughout the body, which allows the Endocannabinoid System to take action and cause a desired effect. We can think of receptors as (natural) locks and the endocannabinoids as the keys. For example, endocannabinoids target the CB1 receptors located in the spine to relieve pain. Finally, the enzymes break down the endocannabinoids after they’ve carried out their task. This prevents the endocannabinoids from “going too far” and disrupting the balance in the opposite  direction. 

This is where cannabinoids such as CBD take shape, also binding to the receptors and affecting the body. After entering the body, CBD can bind to and interact with the CB1 receptors in the brain/central nervous system and the CB2 receptors scattered throughout the body. As a result, the Endocannabinoid System is able to function at a necessary level.

References
Cannabidiol (CBD) – what we know and what we don’t’ (2019) https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
7 Benefits and Uses of CBD Oil (Plus Side Effects) https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cbd-oil-benefits
Human Endocannabinoid System https://www.uclahealth.org/cannabis/human-endocannabinoid-system
The Endocannabinoid System https://www.projectcbd.org/science/endocannabinoid-system

What is CBD?

what is cbd

CBD (Cannabidiol) is one of the key naturally occurring cannabinoids (chemical compounds) found in the stocks, flowers, and seeds of the cannabis plant.  The cannabis plant has two main species, hemp and marijuana. Hemp has a much higher percentage of CBD, but less than .3% THC. Marijuana typically has low levels of CBD and a high percentage of THC. Therefore, CBD extracted from hemp lacks the intoxicating and psychoactive properties associated with the “high” of marijuana. Users report a multitude of benefits from the use of CBD including a sense of calmness, decrease in inflammation, stress relief, improvements in sleep quality, etc…

Our 100% USA organic hemp derived products begin their journey from an ISO 9001 and GMP certified extraction facility. From there, our products are manufactured and packaged at our licensed pharmaceutical manufacturing facility. At Berkeley Gold, our entire process from plant to finished product assures consistency, as well as strict regulatory and customer requirements.

References
Cannabidiol (CBD) https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1439/cannabidiol-cbd